High contextual interference and reduced frequency of knowledge of results (KR)
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The effects on retention and transfer of a fading KR schedule and an evenly distributed KR schedule in a high contextual interference practice order were investigated. Our assumption in administering reduced KR is that there is an optimal relative KR frequency and schedule to maximize the effects of reduced frequency of KR in retention and transfer tests. Thus, 0%, 30% and 70% KR frequencies were tested to determine if there is an optimal range of reduced KR for random practice (RA) participants in practicing timing tasks. The current study included a fading KR schedule as well as an evenly distributed KR schedule with both the 30% and 70% KR frequency conditions. Participants were required to press the response pedal to coincide with the illumination of the last lamp with an anticipation-timing task. Participants who practiced tasks with the 30% evenly distributed KR were more effective in retention for absolute error (AE) than the 30% fading KR group and were more accurate and consistent in retention compared to those who practiced with the 0% KR and the 70% evenly distributed KR. Finally, participants who practiced tasks with the 30% evenly distributed KR were more accurate and consistent in transfer compared to those who practiced tasks without KR (0% KR). The following conclusions were drawn based on the findings in the present study. First, the schedule of KR (when it is presented during practice) may be a factor, in addition to reduced frequency of KR. In addition, practicing tasks with 30% evenly distributed KR shows a tendency (p = .06) to yield better retention performance than either a 70% evenly distributed KR and a 30% fading KR schedule. Second, for retention and transfer there is an optimal relative frequency and schedule of KR (30% evenly distributed KR during acquisition) for learning to response to varying stimuli during an anticipation-timing task. Third, for retention when evenly distributed KR is presented during acquisition a low frequency of KR (30%) is more effective than a high frequency of KR (70%). Fourth, providing less frequent KR does not degrade acquisition performance compared to a higher frequency.