Development of porcine embryos reconstituted with somatic cells and enucleated metaphase I and II oocytes matured in a protein-free medium
Rzucidlo, S Jacek
Gibbons, John R
Stice, Steven L
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Abstract Background Many cloned animals have been created by transfer of differentiated cells at G0/G1 or M phase of the cell cycle into enucleated M II oocytes having high maturation/meiosis/mitosis-promoting factor activity. Because maturation/meiosis/mitosis-promoting factor activity during oocyte maturation is maximal at both M I and M II, M I oocytes may reprogram differentiated cell nuclei as well. The present study was conducted to examine the developmental ability in vitro of porcine embryos reconstructed by transferring somatic cells (ear fibroblasts) into enucleated M I or M II oocytes. Results Analysis of the cell cycle stages revealed that 91.2 ± 0.2% of confluent cells were at the G0/G1 phase and 54.1 ± 4.4% of nocodazole-treated cells were at the G2/M phase, respectively. At 6 h after activation, nuclear swelling was observed in 50.0-88.9% and 34.4-39.5% of embryos reconstituted with confluent cells and nocodazole-treated cells regardless of the recipient oocytes, respectively. The incidence of both a swollen nucleus and polar body was low (6.3-10.5%) for all nocodazole-treated donor cell regardless of the recipient oocyte. When embryos reconstituted with confluent cells and M I oocytes were cultured, 2 (1.5%) blastocysts were obtained and this was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than that (7.6%) of embryos produced by transferring confluent cells into M II oocytes. No reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage when nocodazole-treated cells were used as donors. Conclusions Porcine M I oocytes have a potential to develop into blastocysts after nuclear transfer of somatic cells.